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A country located in the northeastern part of Africa. The capital is the city of Cairo. Administratively divided into 27 provinces. It borders Israel, Palestine, Sudan and Libya. Egypt is located north of the Mediterranean Sea and east of the Red Sea. The Egyptian state is also one from Islamic states, and the bulk of its population is Muslim. President Abdulfattah al-Sisi. AT Egypt is home to one of the seven wonders, the Egyptian pyramids.


1 002 000 km2


105 838 455 people

National currency

Egyptian pound

Official language


Official religion


Egypt-Republic. Its current constitution was approved by referendum on 11 September 1971 with subsequent amendments. The head of state is the president. The term of office is 6 years. Can be re-elected an unlimited number of times. Legislative power is exercised by the President, who appoints and dismiss the prime minister and members of the government.

Egypt is one of the early spaces of the tamaddun (civilization) of mankind. In the 3rd-4th centuries, Egypt was part of composition of the Roman Empire. After the collapse of the Roman Empire (395), it remained a Byzantine province. At the beginning of the 7th century, the entire population of Egypt accepted the Monophysite Christian sect, which acted against the official Orthodox Church of Byzantium. The population spoke the Coptic language (kibt). In that period Egypt was conquered by the Sassanids, and in the years 639-642 by the Arabs, and the country began to spread Islam. Later, the Tulunids (868-905), Abbasids (905-935), Ikhshids (935-969) dynasties ruled. During the period Fatimid (969-1171) Palestine, Damascus (Syria) and Western Arabia were dependent on Egypt. In 1113, the Crusaders invaded Egypt. Governor of the Seljuks in Northern Syria and Iraq Nuriddin Mahmud ibn Zangi (1146-74) provided great assistance to the Fatimid caliph Adid (1160-71) in the fight against crusaders. In return, the caliph appointed him minister (1169). Saladin ascended the throne in 1171. founder of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171-1250). And in 1174 he received the title of Sultan. In 1187 Syrian and Egyptian military forces united to deal a crushing blow to the crusaders and liberate Palestine and Syria from them. Until the middle of the XIII century, the Ayyubids ruled in Egypt, in the XIV-XV centuries, the Mamluks.

Egypt is an agro-industrial country. Supplying the world market with a large number of high-quality long-staple cotton and Gazelles woven from it. Late 70s-early 80s years of the XIX century, oil production and exports began to increase. Increased attention was paid economic development, especially the development of industry and related industries. By the mid 90s years, the share of industry in GDP reached 28.5%, agriculture - 20%. Inside the country, goods are transported mainly by road (85%). About 10% of cargo transportation is accounted for by railways, 5% - by water transport. Highways own. 48.8 thousand km. The most important highways: Cairo - Alexandria, Alexandria - Marseaux - Matruh, Cairo-Suez, Suez - Port Said, Kokira - Al-Gardaka, Cairo-Asyut. The length of the transport route is 8.8 thousand km. The main railway lines: Cairo - Aswan, Cairo - Alexandria, Cairo-Suez, Port - Said-Ismailia. Shipping routes along the Nile and the main canals have their own more than 3 thousand. km. The tonnage of the sea merchant fleet is 1.68 million deadweight tons. Foreign trade cargo is transported mainly by foreign ships and aircraft. Main seaport-Alexandria (on the Mediterranean Sea), other major ports - Port Said and Suez (on the Suez canal), Ras Shukeir and Safaga (on the Red Sea), Cairo has a major international airport.