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Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Istanbul people. Istanbul is located on low and high shores of the Sea of ​​Marmara and the Bosporus. The strait divides the city into two parts - Asian (smaller part) and European. The European part is located on the shores of the Golden Horn. In 1970-72, a bridge was built across the Bosphorus, connecting both parts of Istanbul. Climate subtropical Mediterranean, average January temperature 5.2 °c, August 23.6 °c, annual average rainfall 633 mm.


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Istanbul was founded in 660 BC. like a Byzantine city. Named after a Roman emperor Constantine from 330. Until 395 within the Roman Empire, 395-1453 the capital of Byzantium. In 1453 year Istanbul came under the rule of the Turks and became the capital of the Ottoman Turkish kingdom; From this time the city became known as Istanbul. Taking advantage of the weakening of the Ottoman Turkish kingdom, European states from the end of the 18th century tried to capture the city and the strait. When the military power of Turkey decreased in the First World War, Istanbul was occupied by the Armed Forces of the Entente countries. AT In 1923, the city was liberated from the invaders, and in October of the same year, the capital of Turkey was moved from Istanbul to Ankara.

The city is located in a favorable geographical position. Istanbul is an important industrial, commercial and financial and cultural center of the country. 60% of the country's industry is located in Istanbul. textile, food, metalworking, woodworking, electrical, chemical, machine-building, cement, footwear, clothing, military and other industries, national voucher foreign trading firms, companies, banks, exchanges. Crafts are developed (various wood, metal, leather). Half of all trade transactions in Turkey are in Istanbul.

Istanbul is a junction of sea, land and air routes. The main port of Turkey. From here passed international shipping routes. By rail, most of the capitals of Europe are connected with cities and towns. interior regions of the country. Passenger ships and cargo ferries ply on both sides of Istanbul across the Bosphorus. There is an international airport.