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The Kingdom of Thailand (Ratcha Anachak Tai, in Thai Prathet - Tai) is a state in Southeast Asia, in the central part of the Indochinese Peninsula and the northern part of the Malay Peninsula. capital city Bangkok. Administratively, it is divided into 73 provinces (changwad).
513 120 km2
70 239 885 people
Thailand is a constitutional monarchy. Its current constitution was adopted on September 27, 2016. Chapter
state-king (Maha Vajiralongkorn since 2016). Legislative power is exercised by the National
assembly (2-chamber parliament), the executive-government headed by the prime minister.
Half of its territory is plain, the rest is almost mountainous (Khunthan, Tanentahunji, etc.). East Thailand occupies the Korat plateau. Of the minerals, there are deposits of tin, tungsten, pH, oil shale, lead, fluorspar, iron, manganese ores, antimony, barite, noble stones, brown coal, potash and coal, gas, oil. The climate is subequatorial, monsoonal. The average annual temperature is 22–29° in the plain and foothill pH, in winter it drops to -10°, -15° in northern mountains.
The annual rainfall is 1000-2000 mm. The main river is the Menamchaopraya (Menam). Thailand in the east and partly northeast borders on the Mekong, on the western border the Salween rivers flow. In a swimming pool The Ping and Mun rivers have a large reservoir. About 60% of the country's territory is covered with forests. Red and yellow lateritic soils of the Malacca Peninsula and the Korat plateau, dense, multi-tiered (50-60 m) subequatorial moist forests on deciduous lands, tropical forests occupy a large area on red soils in the north. In the south there are bamboo groves, savannahs and shrubs on the Korat plateau, as well as forests on meadow soils in river valleys. The fauna of Thailand is diverse: the white elephant (most of domesticated), great ape (gibbon), lemur, Malay bear, leopard, tiger, wild boar, deer, deer in the mountains in the north. From birds there are pheasant, peacock, parrot, wild Hen and others, in the swamps, are Karkara, the Siem red-billed crane. There are about 100 types of snakes, about 75 species of lizards and about 500 species of butterflies. There are a lot of fish and crocodiles in the rivers. There are national parks Khaui, Thungsalengluay and others. Lots of reserves.
Man has been living in Thailand since the Paleolithic. In the 1st-2nd centuries BC, an early Mon state. In the 13th century, the Thai tribes from the north merged with the Mons; founded the first major state tai - Sukhothai (1238). His successor was the Kingdom of Ayutthaya (Siem), founded in 1350 year. In the 16-18 centuries, Siem was at war with Burma and for some time remained under its control. power. The freedom struggle was led by Naresuan in the 16th century and Taksin in the 18th century. In the middle of the 19th century Siem entered into unequal agreements with Great Britain, France, and the USA. Carried out land reform other reforms in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As a result of the 1932 coup d'état, proclaimed a constitutional monarchy. 1939 the country began to be called "Thailand".
In 1940, an agreement on friendship and mutual cooperation was signed between Thailand and Japan. In January 1942 Thailand declared war on the US and Britain. By 1943 the country was occupied by Japan. In Thailand, the liberation struggle intensified. A massive underground movement "Free Tai". On August 19, 1945, Thailand offered a truce to the coalition countries fighting against Japan. In post-war years, military coups took place in the country several times, unrest reigned, government. After the military coup of 1991 (17 coups since 1932) came to power National Council for the Maintenance of Public Order. Thailand has been a member of the UN since 1946. National holiday - December 5 - King's Birthday (1927). The Republic of Uzbekistan recognized sovereignty on 26 December 1991 and established diplomatic relations on 6 May 1992.